Human Rights are some basic rights or moral principles inherent to all human beings regardless of caste, race, gender, age, religion, language, and nationality, thereby ensuring equal status to every person in the society. These rights are mentioned in both national and international laws.
The International law mentions Human Rights in its milestone document ‘The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)’, which contains 30 civil and political rights granted to all the people across the world. Similarly, every nation has granted some human rights to their citizens.
Indian constitution also has such a provision for its citizens, which we all know are Fundamental Rights. There are 6 fundamental rights in the Indian Constitution but under these, there are several other rights. Let’s understand each of these in detail.
1. Right to Equality (Article 14-18) – The Right to Equality ensures equality to all citizens in the society without any discrimination based on caste, creed, religion, sex, etc.
Article 14 – Equality before the law.
Article 15 – No discrimination based on religion, sex, race, etc.
Article 16 – Equality of opportunity.
Article 17 – Abolition of untouchability.
Article 18 – Abolition of titles.
2. Right to Freedom (Article 19-22) – This right guarantees freedom to all Indian citizens regardless of any gender, religion, caste, creed, race, and economic status.
Article 19 (a) – Freedom of speech and expression.
Article 19 (b) – Freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms.
Article 19 (c) – Freedom to form associations and unions.
Article 19 (d) – Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
Article 19 (e) – Freedom to reside and settle in any part.
Article 19 (f) – Freedom to practice any profession and business.
Article 20 – Protection and respect of conviction for an offense.
Article 21 – Right to life and liberty (Right to privacy).
Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
3. Right against Exploitation (Article 23-24) – Right against Exploitation prohibits employment of children under the age of 14 years in factories and companies.
Article 23 – Prohibition in traffic of human beings and bonded labor.
Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children in factories, companies, etc.
4. Right to Freedom of Religion (Article 25-28) – This right ensures that equal respect is given to all religions. Every citizen has a right to freely choose his/her faith and manage religious affairs.
Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion.
Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs.
Article 27 – Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular region.
Article 28 – Freedom as to attendance at a religious institution or religious worship in certain educational institutions.
5. Cultural and Educational Rights (Article 29-30) – These rights protect the rights to freedom of culture, and lets minorities preserve their culture and heritage. Right to education, on the other hand, ensures the provision of education to everyone without any discrimination.
Article 29 – Protection of interests of minorities.
Article 30 – Rights of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32) – The Right to Constitution Remedies is the protection of all the above rights. If the fundamental rights of citizens are violated then they can appeal in any court including the Supreme Court.
Article 32 – When any of our fundamental rights are violated, we can seek justice through courts.